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Missing PHP Functions: getopts()

December 23rd, 2008 Leave a comment Go to comments

This function is intended as a complete replacement for the horribly crippled getopt() native PHP function and provide extended functionality.

The use of this library means lots of great command-line-fu becomes readily available without any unnecessary validation tediousness messing up the first half of your script.

To use simply add the (ahem) hash-bang to the top of your PHP script and make the script executable.

An example of a correct setup would be:

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#!/usr/bin/php -qC
<?php
require('getopts.php');
$opts = getopts(array(
	'a' => array('switch' => 'a','type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'b' => array('switch' => array('b','letterb'),'type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'c' => array('switch' => 'c', 'type' => GETOPT_VAL, 'default' => 'defaultval'),
	'd' => array('switch' => 'd', 'type' => GETOPT_KEYVAL),
	'e' => array('switch' => 'e', 'type' => GETOPT_ACCUMULATE),
	'f' => array('switch' => 'f'),
),$_SERVER['argv']);
print_r($opts);
?>

In the above the script can now be run as:

./getopts_example.php -a -b

With the incoming options (in this case the switches ‘a’ and ‘b’) being set in the $opts variable.

Full documentation as well as extensive examples are included in the source which can be found below.

?Download getopts.php
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#!/usr/bin/php -qC
<?php
	/**********************************************************************************
	* Coded by Matt Carter (M@ttCarter.net)                                           *
	***********************************************************************************
	* getOpts                                                                       *
	* Extended CLI mode option and switch handling                                    *
	*                                                                                 *
	**********************************************************************************/
/*
GetOpt Readme
+++++++++++++++
 
getOpt is a library to load commandline options in replacement for the horribly inflexible 'getopts' native php function. It can be invoked using the typical 'require', 'include' (or their varients) from any PHP scripts.
 
LEGAL STUFF
===========
This code is covered under the GPL with republishing permissions provided credit is given to the original author Matt Carter (M@ttCarter.com).
 
LATEST VERSIONS
===============
The latest version can be found on the McStuff website currently loadted at http://ttcarter.com/mcstuff or by contacting the author at M@ttCarter.com (yes thats an email address).
 
QUICK EXAMPLE
=============
#!/usr/bin/php -qC
<?php
require('getopts.php');
$opts = getopts(array(
	'a' => array('switch' => 'a','type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'b' => array('switch' => array('b','letterb'),'type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'c' => array('switch' => 'c', 'type' => GETOPT_VAL, 'default' => 'defaultval'),
	'd' => array('switch' => 'd', 'type' => GETOPT_KEYVAL),
	'e' => array('switch' => 'e', 'type' => GETOPT_ACCUMULATE),
	'f' => array('switch' => 'f'),
),$_SERVER['argv']);
?>
 
When used with the commandline:
>./PROGRAM.php -ab -c 15 -d key=val -e 1 --letterb -d key2=val2 -eeeeeee 2 3
 
Gives the $opt variable the following structure:
$opt = Array (
	[cmdline] => Array (
		[0] => 1
		[1] => 2
		[2] => 3
	)
	[a] => 1
	[b] => 1
	[c] => 15
	[d] => Array (
		[key] => val
		[key2] => val2
	)
	[e] => 8
	[f] => 0
)
 
Of course the above is a complex example showing off most of getopts functions all in one.
 
Types and there meanings
========================
 
GETOPT_SWITCH
	This is either 0 or 1. No matter how many times it is specified on the command line.
 
	>PROGRAM -c -c -c -cccc
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 1;
 
	>PROGRAM
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 0
 
GETOPT_ACCUMULATE
	Each time this switch is used its value increases.
 
	>PROGRAM -vvvv
	Gives:
	$opt['v'] = 4
 
GETOPT_VAL
	This expects a value after its specification.
 
	>PROGRAM -c 32
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 32
 
	Multiple times override each precursive invokation so:
 
	>PROGRAM -c 32 -c 10 -c 67
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 67
 
GETOPT_MULTIVAL
	The same format as GETOPT_VAL only this allows multiple values. All incomming variables are automatically formatted in an array no matter how few items are present.
 
	>PROGRAM -c 1 -c 2 -c 3
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array(1,2,3)
 
	>PROGRAM -c 1
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array(1)
 
	>PROGRAM
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array()
 
GETOPT_KEYVAL
	Allows for key=value specifications.
 
	>PROGRAM -c key=val -c key2=val2 -c key3=val3 -c key3=val4
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array('key1' => 'val2','key2' => 'val2','key3' => array('val3','val4');
 
*/
 
define('GETOPT_NOTSWITCH',0); // Internal use only
define('GETOPT_SWITCH',1);
define('GETOPT_ACCUMULATE',2);
define('GETOPT_VAL',3);
define('GETOPT_MULTIVAL',4);
define('GETOPT_KEYVAL',5);
 
/**
* @param array $options The getOpts specification. See the documentation for more details
* @param string|array $fromarr Either a command line of switches or the array structure to take options from. If omitted $_SERVER['argv'] is used
* @return array Processed array of return values
*/
function getopts($options,$fromarr = null) {
	if ($fromarr === null)
		$fromarr = $_SERVER['argv'];
	elseif (!is_array($fromarr))
		$fromarr = explode(' ',$fromarr); // Split it into an array if someone passes anything other than an array
	$opts = array('cmdline' => array()); // Output options
	$optionslookup = array(); // Reverse lookup table mapping each possible option to its real $options key
	foreach ($options as $optitem => $props) { // Default all options
		if (!isset($props['type'])) { // User didnt specify type...
				$options[$optitem]['type'] = GETOPT_SWITCH; // Default to switch
				$props['type'] = GETOPT_SWITCH; // And again because we're not using pointers here
		}
		switch ($props['type']) {
				case GETOPT_VAL:
					if (isset($props['default'])) {
						$opts[$optitem] = $props['default'];
						break;
					} // else fallthough...
				case GETOPT_ACCUMULATE:
				case GETOPT_SWITCH:
					$opts[$optitem] = 0;
					break;
				case GETOPT_MULTIVAL:
				case GETOPT_KEYVAL:
					$opts[$optitem] = array();
		}
		if (is_array($props['switch'])) { // Create the $optionslookup var from an array of aliases
				foreach ($props['switch'] as $switchalias)
					$optionslookup[$switchalias] = $optitem;
		} else { // Create the $optionslookup ref as a simple pointer to the hash
			$optionslookup[$props['switch']] = $optitem;
		}
	}
 
	$inswitch = GETOPT_NOTSWITCH;
	for ($i = 1; $i < count($fromarr); $i++) {
		switch ($inswitch) {
			case GETOPT_MULTIVAL:
			case GETOPT_VAL:
				if (substr($fromarr[$i],0,1) == '-') // Throw error if the user tries to simply set another switch while the last one is still 'open'
					die("The option '{$fromarr[$i]}' needs a value.\n");
				GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$inswitch_key,$fromarr[$i]);
				$inswitch = GETOPT_NOTSWITCH; // Reset the reader to carry on reading normal stuff
				break;
			case GETOPT_KEYVAL: // Yes, the awkward one.
				if (substr($fromarr[$i],0,1) == '-') // Throw error if the user tries to simply set another switch while the last one is still 'open'
					die("The option '{$fromarr[$i]}' needs a value.\n");
				$fromarr[$i] = strtr($fromarr[$i],':','='); // Replace all ':' with '=' (keeping things simple and fast.
				if (strpos($fromarr[$i],'=') === false)
					die("The option '$inswitch_userkey' needs a key-value pair. E.g. '-$inswitch_userkey option=value'");
				GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$inswitch_key,explode('=',$fromarr[$i]));
				$inswitch = GETOPT_NOTSWITCH; // Reset the reader to carry on reading normal stuff
				break;
			case GETOPT_NOTSWITCH: // General invokation of no previously complex cmdline options (i.e. i have no idea what to expect next)
				if (substr($fromarr[$i],0,1) == '-') {
					// Probably the start of a switch
					if ((strlen($fromarr[$i]) == 2) || (substr($fromarr[$i],0,2) == '--')) { // Single switch OR long opt (might be a weird thing like VAL, MULTIVAL etc.)
							$userkey = ltrim($fromarr[$i],'-');
							if (!isset($optionslookup[$userkey]))
									die("Unknown option '-$userkey'\n");
								$hashkey = $optionslookup[$userkey]; // Replace with the REAL key
							if (($options[$hashkey]['type'] == GETOPT_SWITCH) || ($options[$hashkey]['type'] == GETOPT_ACCUMULATE)) {
								GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$hashkey,1); // Simple enough - Single option specified in switch that needs no params.
							} else { // OK the option needs a value. This is where the fun begins
								$inswitch = $options[$hashkey]['type']; // Set so the next process cycle will pick it up
								$inswitch_key = $hashkey;
								$inswitch_userkey = $userkey;
							}
					} else {
						// Multiple letters. Probably a bundling
						for ($o = 1; $o < strlen($fromarr[$i]); $o++) {
							$hashkey = substr($fromarr[$i],$o,1);
							if (!isset($optionslookup[$hashkey]))
									die("Unknown option '-$hashkey'\n");
							if (($options[$optionslookup[$hashkey]]['type'] != GETOPT_SWITCH) && ($options[$optionslookup[$hashkey]]['type'] != GETOPT_ACCUMULATE))
								die("Option '-$hashkey' requires a value.\n");
							GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$optionslookup[$hashkey],1);
						}
					}
				} else {
					$opts['cmdline'][] = $fromarr[$i]; // Just detritus on the cmdline
				}
				break;
		}
	}
	return $opts;	
}
 
function GETOPT_setval(&$opts,&$options,$key,$value) {
	switch ($options[$key]['type']) {
		case GETOPT_VAL:
		case GETOPT_SWITCH:
			$opts[$key] = $value;
				break;
		case GETOPT_ACCUMULATE:
			$opts[$key]++;
				break;
		case GETOPT_MULTIVAL:
			$opts[$key][] = $value;
			break;
		case GETOPT_KEYVAL:
			$opts[$key][$value[0]] = $value[1];
	}
}
?>

If you do use this script, please take a moment to add any comments or suggestions below.

Categories: PHP Tags: ,
  1. June 11th, 2009 at 14:42 | #1

    Would be nice to return from getopt() with a value in the case of unknown option, rather than die(), so that the option help could be displayed.

  2. June 11th, 2009 at 14:43 | #2

    Otherwise thanks for the script! works well :-)

  3. June 11th, 2009 at 14:55 | #3

    but of course argc tells you that before you call getopt.!! silly me. :-(

  4. Pileofrogs
    September 25th, 2009 at 05:43 | #4

    Cool! This is the only getopt replacement I could find that did accumulators (or bunding as I knew it). There was a typo SGETOPT_ACCUMULATE. Replaced with GETOPT_ACCUMULATE and it seems fine.

    • September 27th, 2009 at 12:12 | #5

      Thanks. Nice to know this is of use to someone out there.

      The correction you mentioned has been made to the above. Thanks for pointing it out.

  5. Will
    December 31st, 2009 at 09:11 | #6

    This was almost exactly what I needed on my current project. Thanks for saving me from writing this myself.

    It would be nice if a -h option would dump all this information in a relatively readable form unless -h/–help is otherwise defined.

    • December 31st, 2009 at 14:13 | #7

      Nice idea. I guess I should add a ‘description’ field to the hash to output what each field means.

  6. January 29th, 2010 at 03:34 | #8

    This would be perfect for me, except it doesn’t support

    php file.php –option=value

    • January 29th, 2010 at 10:40 | #9

      Good point.

      I think its about time I updated some of this code anyway to allow some of the other functionality listed in these comments.

      I’ll try to get something up soon.

  7. Anonymous
    April 16th, 2010 at 02:18 | #10

    I really appreciate your work, but as listed above the syntax “-o=x” or “–o=x” (and you could also support “-ox” for the same purporse, like the original getopt) would be great.
    and instead of the “die” a return (with a new array for unknown/malformed options) would be a nice to have.

  8. February 12th, 2011 at 01:31 | #11

    Here is a more comfortable implementation: https://github.com/alexkazik/getopts

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